Energy has a direct impact on the standard of living of people and
industrial side of the country and both of these are a good measure of
economic development of a country. If people of a country are having
a high standard of living and their industrial side is progressing well
(means the exports are greater than the imports) than it is a clear sign
that the country is making full use of its resources its growth rate is

Energy Sources

Following are the main sources of energy in Pakistan (for generating electricity):
A) Conventional sources :
Conventional energy sources are typically fully developed,

Nonrenewable resources:
It includes ;
1) Thermal energy
2) Hydal energy
3)Nuclear energy

B) Non conventional sources :

Nonconventional sources may be functional but are still

undergoing development and use renewable resources.
1) Wind energy
2) Solar energy
3) Bio gas (energy animal &plant wastes)

A) Conventional sources

Conventional sources of energy are those sources
which are generally used In the country for the production of heat ,
electricity , and power . Pakistan has the following conventional
sources of energy that are as follows :


Thermal energy refers to the type of energy in which heat is used to
produce energy .
Thermal Energy is the oldest type of energy. With all known history
available, Wood was always used for heating and cooking. In 2nd world
war fossil fuels entered in the form of coal to get the energy, until
liquid fuels were discovered and because of their convenience of
transportation they took over as major contributors of the energy
Once the steam engines were invented then the coal or liquid fuel was burnt in the boilers and the heat produces steam which is used to drive electrical generators, or any other mechanical device.


Rudolph diesels invention of diesel engine revolutionaries the energy
concept and today we see sine the majority of machines moving on
diesel engines.
Thermal energy sources in Pakistan

1. Coal

Pakistan has huge reserves of coal which can be used to overcome the problem of energy crises in the country . The government of Pakistan is making hectic efforts to introduce the coal usage in the industrial sector. The machinery for these units is totally exempted from import duties and taxes. A coal based power plant of 150MW has been set up in the interior sindh.

2. Oil

Oil is one of the most important sources of energy through out the
world and its importance is increasing day by day. many wars are
being fought just tov get the reserves of the oil..the government of
Pakistan is making sincere efforts to find out new oil fields in the
country .the policy is to attain self sufficiency in oil because oil as a
source of energy is expensive if it is imported from other countries and
it greatly increases the import bills of the present the
generation capacity of electricity through oil is 12340MW

3.Natural gas:

Natural gas is also a precious gift of Allah to our country. huge deposits
of natural gas has been discovered in many parts of Baluchistan and
sindh.natural gas is a cheap sources of energy in comparison to oil
and it can also play a great role in the industrial sector because it is
used as a raw material in many industries like fertilizers cement and
plastics etc.


Water flowing in the rivers has kinetic energy. Once they are used to drive the turbine and produce electricity the power generated as Hydel Energy.

Power produced by the turbines depends on quantity of water
flowing/minute and the head of water available.
Mostly river flows by melting glaciers on high mountains. Once
the water start flowing in the valleys it changes its head very rapidly.

This energy can be converted into electrical energy.
Two method are normally used:-
1. Dams
2. Run of River projects.
In case of Dams the water flow is restricted by making a huge storage device and the head of water is increased, the water then is allowed to flow by means of gates and pass through the turbines, the head of reservoir level is maintained to provide uniform power, and the water stored in peak season additionally is used for irrigation purposes in dry seasons.
In run of river projects the water is diverted through the tunnels and once it gains the head allowed to fall and pass through the turbines and back to river. the water in these projects is continuously flowing and not being stored.
Geographical situation is paramount importance in choosing a suitable site for the hydro project and it evolves a very serious time and money consuming study.

Once a site is located further detailed feasibility study is required

before proceeding any serious effort to start the work.
The feasibility study should include following field work.
1. Detailed Mapping of the area

5. Weather data containing, Temperatures, pressures, rain humidity
6. Water sampling and testing
7. Environmental study
8. Social impact
9. Wild life and fish study
10. Identification of stake holders of the area
11. Coring and getting samples of the soil at 50-200 meters depth
12. Laboratory testing of the cores samples
13. study to evaluate earth quake dangers

Hydel energy in Pakistan:


In Pakistan hydel energy is usually generated through waterfalls
(dams).there are many dams in the country which play a great role in
the generation of electricity for household, business and industrial
sector. since independence huge amounts have been allocated for the
development of hydel energy as it is a main source of electricity
generation in the country as a result of this the generation of electric
power through hydel energy has been increased from 68MW in 1947 to
6555MW in 2009.

3. Nuclear energy

The importance of nuclear energy as a source of electricity generation
is increasing very rapidly throughout the world as many developed as
well as developing countries are making use of nuclear enery to
generate electricity. the main fuel which is required to run the nuclear
reactor is called uranium.with the grace of all mighty uranium is found
in excess in Pakistan. at present there are two nuclear electric power
generation plants in Pakistan namely Karachi nuclear power plant and
chasma nuclear power plant

B) Non-conventional sources of energy

The less developing countries are now developing other
renewable sources of energy . these sources are comparatively
cheaper to those of conventional sources of energy and these sources
have a simplified technology , the non-conventional sources of energy
are as follows :

1. Wind energy

Wind energy is a very cheap source of generating windy
areas,the windmills can be used for supplying electricity on a small
scale the windmill can be used for pumping water for crops,grinding
corn,crushing sugar cane,thrashing,cutting of wood etc present
there are four mechanical wind pumpers and one wind power
generation system has been set up

2. Solar energy

The sun provides 170000MW of power to earth on daily basis.the
sunshine can also be used a cheap source of energy.many developed
countries as well as developing countries are now making use of the
solar energy in order to fulfill their energy demand as it is a very cheap
and easily available source of energy

3. Biogas

It is produced from animal and plant wastes although it is a very cheap
source of energy but it can not be used on the large scale like the solar
and wind energy. However it can be utilized very well in the rural 72% of our population live in villages they make the best use
of this source of energy .



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